Category Archives: Historical Scholarship

Historical Scholarship

Papers of Sir Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton (1642-1727), the greatest natural philosopher of his age and perhaps any age, came up to the University of Cambridge in 1661, graduating in 1665. In 1669 he succeeded Isaac Barrow in the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics. In 1699 Newton was appointed Master of the Mint, resigning the Lucasian Chair and his Trinity College Fellowship in 1701. He was elected President of the Royal Society in 1703, which post he occupied until his death.

Collected Papers of Albert Einstein

The Digital Einstein Papers is an open-access site for The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, the ongoing publication of Einstein’s massive written legacy comprising more than 30,000 unique documents. The site presents all 13 volumes published to date by the editors of the Einstein Papers Project, covering the writings and correspondence of Albert Einstein (1879-1955) from his youth to 1923.

Center of excellence of the Leibniz Prize

Center of excellence of the Leibniz Prize of the German Research Association The publication platform offers free access to selected publications by scientists who have been awarded the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize.

Thomas Jefferson Papers, 1606 to 1827

Thomas Jefferson Papers consist mainly of his correspondence, but they also include his drafts of the Declaration of Independence, drafts of Virginia laws; his fragmentary autobiography; the small memorandum books he used to record his spending; the pages on which for many years he daily recorded the weather; many charts, lists, tables, and drawings recording his scientific and other observations; notes; maps; recipes; ciphers; locks of hair; wool samples; and more.

The library of Galileo

The library of Galileo according to the reconstruction of Antonio Favaro according to the inventories of the heirs and direct quotes, had about 500 titles, but the same scholar declared no final result of the survey but subject to refinement and variants.

Historical scientific literature (ETH-Bibliothek)

This category includes scientific books collected by the ETH-Bibliothek, dating from the middle of the 15th century to the end of the 19th century. The focus is on subjects such as astronomy, mathematics, technology, architecture and natural sciences.

Newton Papers

Cambridge University Library holds the largest and most important collection of the scientific works of Isaac Newton (1642-1727). Newton was closely associated with Cambridge. He came to the University as a student in 1661, graduating in 1665, and from 1669 to 1701 he held the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics. Under the regulations for this Chair, Newton was required to deposit copies of his lectures in the University Library. These, and some correspondence relating to the University, were assigned the classmarks Dd.4.18, Dd.9.46, Dd.9.67, Dd.9.68, and Mm.6.50.

Celebrating Einstein : A Series of Articles

In this series about Albert Einstein’s body of work, his discoveries are related to today’s research, technology, and common knowledge. Series themes include “How did Einstein know that?” and “How did Einstein figure that out?” and they focus either on conveying a major concept or on the reasoning that led to it. These articles will also cover Einstein’s major 1905 writings and address his general theory of relativity. In consideration of 2005 being designated as the World Year of Physics, the release of these articles is especially appropriate.

The Manhattan Project

August 13, 2012 was the 70th anniversary of the establishment of the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project played an essential role in bringing World War II to an end through the building of the atomic bomb. This major achievement was possible because the U.S. government conducted a massive, secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon.

The Chymistry of Isaac Newton 
Isaac Newton wrote at least one hundred thirty one manuscripts, totaling approximately one million words on the subject of alchemy (“chymistry”). This scholarly online edition will be part of an integrated project that combines new research on Newton’s chymistry with an online edition of his manuscripts.

Darwin Manuscripts Project   
The Charles Darwin Papers in the Manuscripts Department of Cambridge University Library hold nearly the entire extant collection of Darwin’s working scientific papers. Paramount among these documents are Charles Darwin’s Evolution Manuscripts, which are being published online at the Cambridge Digital Library and simultaneously at the Darwin Manuscripts Project in collaboration with the Darwin Correspondence Project

Galileo Galilei   
This exhibition commemorates the 1616 edict of the Catholic Church rejecting the notion that the sun is the center of the universe and that the earth is a planet orbiting the sun. From the time of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (b.384 – d.322 B.C.), Europeans accepted geocentrism (the belief that the earth is the center of the universe). In 150 A. D., Greco-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy proposed that the stars were set into a celestial sphere, which rotated around the earth. The movement of the stars and planets around the earth was believed to explain their rising and setting. The “Ptolemaic system” was widely accepted for over 1500 years.

Benjamin Franklin  
This resource guide assists in locating Franklin resources available on the Library of Congress’s Web site. In addition, it provides links to external Web sites focusing on Franklin and a bibliography containing selections for both general and younger readers.

Nietzsche Source   
A digital facsimile reproduction of the entire Nietzsche estate, including first editions of works, manuscripts, letters and biographical documents. All the almost 7,000 philological corrections that are scattered in the critical apparatuses of the different commentary volumes of the print edition have been integrated directly into the digital critical edition (eKGWB).

Papers of Benjamin Franklin  
This Collection, originally called at Yale the Mason-Franklin Collection, is the most extensive collection of materials by, about, and around Franklin and his times to be found in a single collection anywhere in the world. A digital version of the Franklin Papers previously available to scholars and researchers on a CD-ROM, is now available to the public with an Introduction by Edmund S. Morgan. This digital edition includes texts of the published papers and unverified, rough transcriptions of the as-yet-unpublished material.

Darwin Correspondence Project   
The Darwin Correspondence Project offers the full texts of more than 7,000 of Charles Darwin’s letters, and limited information on over 8,000 more. Published by the University of Cambridge, the digitization project offers not only texts but a plethora of interactive material visitors can use to explore the life and legacy of Charles Darwin.

The Einstein Archives Online  
The Einstein Archives Online present the life and legacy of the famous scientist and mathematician through his writings- both scientific and biographical. Einstein’s papers, housed at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, have been published online through their partnership with the California Institute of Technology. The site currently houses 87 documents that offer a perspective into both the professional and personal life of Albert Einstein.

The papers of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)  
The papers of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) span the years from about the 6th century B.C.E. (a small Greek statue) to 1998, with the bulk of material dating from 1871 to 1939. The digitized collection documents Freud’s founding of psychoanalysis, the maturation of psychoanalytic theory, the refinement of its clinical technique, and the proliferation of its adherents and critics. Many facets of Freud’s life and work are reflected, including his early medical and clinical training; his relationship with family, friends, colleagues, students, and patients; his association with early psychoanalytic societies; his perspectives on analytical training; and his numerous writings.

Herbert Spencer Archive 
Correspondence, papers, drawings and newspaper cuttings relating to Herbert Spencer. Also contains photographs, portraits and drawings of Spencer, his family and other subjects, 1830-1936, as well as minutes of meetings of Herbert Spencer’s trustees (1905-1936). Correspondents include Sir Robert Peel, Richard Cobden, John Bright, Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Sir John Herschel, Charles Darwin, George Grote, Edward Henry Stanley, Benjamin Jowett, John Stuart Mill, Charles Kingsley, Edward Stanley [fourteenth earl of Derby], Thomas Henry Huxley, William Gladstone, Leslie Stephen, Beatrice Webb, Sir Hubert Parry, James Anthony Froude, Lord Queensberry

Academy Edition of Kant’s collected works   
Kant argued that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment, that space and time are forms of our sensibility,

Eusebius of Caesariensis   
also known as Eusebius Pamphili, was a Greek historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely well learned Christian of his time

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) Collection  
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) is one of Germany’s greatest writers and philosophers. His controversial philosophical works provide a revolutionary challenge to Christianity and traditional morality. He is perhaps best known for his declaration of the death of God and his concepts of the Übermensch and the Will to Power

Works of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Bibliothèque de Genève)   
This collection gives an overview of the original editions of the works of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, regardless of whether they were printed separately or published in complete editions of his works.

Martin Perl and the Tau Lepton   
‘Martin L. Perl, a professor at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), [was] awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in physics … for his 1975 discovery of a new elementary particle known as the tau lepton. … The tau lepton is a superheavy cousin of the electron, the carrier of electrical current in household appliances. The two particles are identical in all respects except that the tau is more than 3,500 times heavier than the electron and survives less than a trillionth of a second, whereas the electron is stable.

Edwin M. McMillan, Neptunium, Phase Stability, and the Synchrotron  
‘For many years, scientists believed that Uranium, with its atomic weight of 92, was the upper limit of the periodic table. But in 1940, more than a century and a half after Uranium was first discovered, UC Berkeley physicist Edwin M. McMillan, working with Philip Abelson at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, boosted the number of known elements to 93. Neptunium led the way for the discovery of many other elements heavier than Uranium and the development of various nuclear fuels

Yoichiro Nambu and the Mechanism of Spontaneous Broken Symmetries in Subatomic Physics  
Nambu ‘has revolutionized modern scientific ideas about the nature of the most fundamental particles and the space through which they move. His theories form an essential cornerstone of what physicists call the Standard Model, which explains in a unified way three of the four fundamental forces of nature: strong, weak and electromagnetic. He also has significantly influenced the development of quantum chromodynamics, a theory that describes certain interactions between quarks and between protons and neutrons.

Frederick Reines and the Detection of the Neutrino   
‘[Frederick] Reines – known among scientists as the “father of neutrino physics” – won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1995 [“for the detection of the neutrino”], nearly 40 years after his neutrino experiments changed the world of physics and set in motion a new way of looking at the universe. … Frederick Reines Courtesy University of California Irvine Until Reines’s discovery, physicists had only theorized the existence of the neutrino – and physicists believed the tiny particles would never be detected. Reines’s research laid the groundwork for new avenues of physics inquiry and hundreds of physics experiments that have tested central theories about the structure of our cosmos. The neutrino is one of the tiny spinning particles that are the building blocks of nature. …

Carl Anderson and the Discovery of the Positron   
Carl David Anderson discovered the positron in 1932. Anderson, then a postdoc in the physics department at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) was photographing the track of a cosmic ray particle in a cloud chamber. The track had an unusual curvature, and he deduced that it could only be produced by a particle “carrying a positive charge but having a mass of the same order of magnitude as that normally possessed by a free negative electron.

Ivar Giaever, Tunneling, and Superconductors   
From 1958 to 1970, Dr. Giaever worked in the fields of thin films, tunneling, and superconductivity,’1 research that resulted in his receiving the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973. ‘n 1971, Dr. Giaever began studying the behavior of organic molecules at solid surfaces, and the interaction of cells with surfaces. In 1988, he became an Institute Professor of Science at Rensselaer

Saul Perlmutter, Distant Supernovae, Dark Energy, and the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe  
‘Perlmutter … led the Supernova Cosmology Project that, in 1998, discovered that galaxies are receding from one another faster now than they were billions of years ago.

Melvin Calvin and Carbon in Photosynthesis   
‘On September 2, 1945, … Ernest Lawrence, Director of UC Berkeley’s Radiation Laboratory, suggested to chemistry professor and “Rad Lab” researcher Melvin Calvin that “now is the time to do something useful with radioactive carbon.” That nudge eventually led Calvin to uncover the secrets of how plants capture energy from the sun. The research earned Calvin the 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry ‘1 “for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants”.

Willard Libby, Radiocarbon, and Carbon Dating 
Libby discovered that when plants absorb carbon for photosynthesis they also absorb certain amounts of carbon-14. He deduced that when the plant dies, it no longer absorbs any of this carbon and that carbon-14 decays at a predictable rate. Libby found a way to determine the age of plant-based artifacts utilizing the decay rate of carbon-14. This process has been used to determine the age of mummies, prehistoric artifacts and dwellings.

The American Physiological Society (APS) Nobel Laureates

The APS proudly presents the 76 Nobel Laureates who have authored papers in our journals. For a list of articles, click on the names below. On each bibliography page, click on the Nobel Laureate’s photo to learn more about their life and work.

ISI Highly Cited

ISI Highly Cited identifies individuals, departments and laboratories that have made fundamental contributions to the advancement of science and technology in recent decades. It reveals the people behind the accomplishments in 21 broad subject categories in life sciences, medicine, physical sciences, engineering, and social is the official web site of the Nobel Prize. Here you will find information for every Nobel Prize since 1901, including the Nobel Laureates’ biographies, Nobel Lectures, interviews, photos, articles, video clips, press releases, educational games and more.

Nobel Laureates Associated with the DOE and Predecessors

Among the most prestigious scientific awards in the world are the Nobel Prizes for Chemistry, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine. All three of these Nobel Prizes have been presented since 1901, with the Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Physics awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet. (For more information about the Nobel Prize, visit nobelprize.orgExternal link.)

United Nations and the Nobel Peace Prize

The will Alfred Nobel made in 1895 was inspired by belief in the community of man. The Peace Prize was to be awarded to the person who had done most for “fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses”.

U.S. State Poets Laureate  
The Library’s Digital Reference Section is in the process of creating Web guides to online resources for each U.S. Poet Laureate (1986-present) and Consultant in Poetry (1937-1985) to the Library of Congress. Each guide will link to Library of Congress Web pages that include information on the poet laureate’s life and work,

The Nobel Prize Internet Archive  
The Nobel Prize Internet Archive is fully interactive. If you have an interesting and useful Internet link about a particular Nobel Laureate, you can add your link instantly to that laureate’s home page here at the Archive. We encourage you to add links as often as you like. The educational value of this Archive depends on contributions and resourcefulness its users.

Enrico Fermi Laureates   
The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. The Enrico Fermi Award is given to encourage excellence in research in energy science and technology benefiting mankind; to recognize scientists, engineers, and science policymakers who have given unstintingly over their careers to advance energy science and technology

Fundamental Ideas and Problems of the Theory of Relativity (Albert Einstein)  
Prize motivation: “for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”

Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA  
DOE and Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham announced the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the description of the DNA double helix during April 2003. James D. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their research in this area.

Bertram Brockhouse, the Triple-axis Spectrometer, and Neutron Spectroscopy  
Bertram Brockhouse ‘attended the University of British Columbia, from which he graduated in 1947 with first class honours in mathematics and physics. He entered the University of Toronto that same year … . He obtained his Ph.D. in 1950, with a thesis entitled “The Effect of Stress and Temperature upon the Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Materials”.

F. Sherwood Rowland, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and the Thinning of the Ozone Layer 
F. Sherwood Rowland … shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry for helping to discover that a chemical used in hair spray, aerosol deodorants and kitchen refrigerators was slowly destroying Earth’s ozone layer …

Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion  
Molina and Rowland were vindicated. In 1987 the Montreal Protocol for reducing named substances that deplete the ozone layer was opened for signature. By 2009 all nations in the United Nations had ratified the original protocol. In 1995 Molina and Rowland were awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry, along with Swedish scientist Paul Crutzen, for the work they had done in helping unravel the mysteries and dangers of CFCs.

Ilya Prigogine, Chaos, and Dissipative Structures  
Prigogine developed the concept of “dissipative structures” to describe the coherent space-time structures that form in open systems in which an exchange of matter and energy occurs between a system and its environment. Ilya Prigogine received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977 for “his contributions to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theories of dissipative structures.” …

Henry Taube, a Marguerite Blake Wilbur   
Henry Taube, a Marguerite Blake Wilbur Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus, at Stanford University, received the 1983 Nobel Prize in Chemistry “for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes”

Dudley Herschbach: Chemical Reactions and Molecular Beams   
As a co-recipient of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, ‘Dudley Herschbach was cited for “providing a much more detailed understanding of how chemical reactions take place”. Using molecular beams, he studied elementary reactions such as K + CH3I and K + Br2, where it became possible to correlate reaction dynamics with the electronic structures of reactants and products. Exchanges proceeded through a persistent complex that lasted for many rotational periods, with product angular distributions reflecting the degree of reagent entanglement. Later this work was extended to H + Cl2, Cl + HI, halogen substitution reactions with vinyl and allyl halides, as well as such systems as Xe + Ar2 → XeAr + Ar. Herschbach has been a pioneer in the measurement and theoretical interpretation of vector properties of reaction dynamics, a field known as “molecular stereodynamics”.

Julian Schwinger and the Source Theory   
Julian S. Schwinger received the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his “fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”. “The theoretical achievements of Schwinger and [Richard] Feynman in the late 1940s and early 1950s ignited a revolution in quantum field theory and laid the foundations for much of the spectacular progress that has been made during the ensuing four decades in understanding the fundamental forces of nature. Although many others also contributed, it was Julian who made the initial breakthrough and led this development in its early stages. …

Robert B. Laughlin and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect 
Robert B. Laughlin shared the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics with Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui for ‘their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations’.

Richard Schrock, Robert Grubbs, and Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis   
Richard R. Schrock of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Robert H. Grubbs of the California Institute of Technology were awarded the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry “for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”.

Rudolph A. Marcus and His Theory of Electron Transfer Reactions  
Rudolph A. Marcus was awarded the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry “for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems”. ‘According to Chemistry Chairman Norman Sutin, some of the early definitive tests of Marcus’s theoretical work were done … at [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)] …

Robert Hofstadter, Electron Scattering, the Structure of the Nucleons, and Scintillation Counters   
After receiving a B.S. from The City College of New York in 1935, Robert Hofstadter completed his Ph.D. at Princeton University in 1938. He worked at the National Bureau of Standards during World War II and afterwards returned to Princeton, where, during the late 1940s, “he began serious studies of nuclear processes and particle detectors. …

Alexei Abrikosov and Superconductivity   
Alexei A. Abrikosov of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics for his research in the area of superconductivity. Alexei Abrikosov Courtesy Argonne National Laboratory “Abrikosov’s research [at ANL] centers on condensed-matter physics (the structure and behavior of solids and liquids), and concentrates on superconductivity, the ability of some materials to carry electrical current without resistance. He was the first to propose the concept of “type-II superconductors” in 1952 and constructed the theory of their magnetic properties, known as the Abrikosov vortex lattice.

Paul D. Boyer, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), and the Binding Change Mechanism   
‘For Paul Boyer, the Nobel Prize was “an unexpected pleasure.” It had been 20 years since he formulated a hypothesis to describe what he calls “the most prominent chemical reaction in the whole world.” It is the process by which molecules produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), thereby transmuting light, air, water and food into the energy required for both plant and animal life.

DOE Scientists Contribute to 2007 Nobel Peace Prize about Climate Change  
The United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize “for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change”. Department of Energy (DOE) researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) contributed to this achievement.

Enrico Fermi and the First Self-Sustaining Nuclear Chain Reaction  
“The President of the United States of America … for especially meritorious contributions to the development, use, or control of atomic energy, grant[s] an award of merit to Enrico Fermi for his contributions to basic neutron physics and the achievement of the controlled nuclear chain reaction.” – Excerpt from Enrico Fermi Award signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on December 1, 1954.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1964: Jean-Paul Sartre  
Features brief biography, as well as summary and text of the award announcement.